Alphabetical Listing of terms and definitions
given to anywhere in the abdomen.
scan of the area below the waist using sound waves to make up a
of the organs inside the body.
one of a large group of cancerous tumors of the glands. The types
of tumors are named for the tissue.
(a chemotherapy drug) that is being taken after surgery to try to
prevent a cancer from coming back.
treatment given in addition to the main treatment to try to prevent
from coming back.
anti-cancer drug. (chemotherapy)
usually used to mean cancer that has spread from where it started
another part of the body.
are a group of chemicals produced by a mold that can contaminate
certain foods, such as peanuts, corn, grains, and seeds. These chemicals
carcinogens (cancer-causing agents) for liver cancer.
found in the bloodstream of some men with testicular cancer.
The level rises when the cancer is growing and falls when the cancer
is shrinking. A blood test can measure alpha-fetoprotein to determine
the progress of the disease and success of treatment.
of the blood vessels.
form of liver cancer involving the blood vessels in the liver.
cell death". Normal cells automatically die off once they have
reproduced about 60 times. This is called apoptosis.
group of drugs used to treat breast cancer. They work by affecting
the way the Adrenal Glands work and stopping them from producing
estrogen in post-menopausal women.
of fluid in the abdominal cavity. If this is due to cancer, it is
called malignant ascites. Normally this condition represents a late
stage of cancer.
research drug that may be "antiangiogenic", i.e., stops
blood vessels from supplying a growing cancer.
called enlarged prostate. Literally means non-cancerous growth of
the cells of the prostate gland.
cancerous. A benign tumor is a harmless growth, which may or may
be operated on.
divide into two parts or branches. Forked or divided into two parts.
bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that
is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged
into the duodenum. Bile aids in the emulsification, digestion, and
absorption of fats.
in the liver that carries bile between the liver and the intestine.
name for immunotherapy.
piece of body tissue taken so that the cells can be examined under
substance in the center of the bones where red and white blood cells
and platelets are made.
therapy at short distances. Source of radiation is made in the form
of wires, seeds, or plaques and are inserted into the tumor for
delivering high doses of radiation. The radioactive sources are
Cesium, Iridium, and Iodine. Patients usually remain in the hospital
for a few days while the radiation source is in place. High dose
rate brachytherapy however takes only a few minutes
and can be performed on an outpatient basis.
tissue inside the bones that contains bone marrow, which makes blood
treatment currently being researched that may be able to limit cancer
growth or eventually, stop people from getting cancers. Research
for this type of treatment is at a very early stage.
of Breast Reconstruction when a Breast Implant has been put in.
After the operation, a fibrous covering naturally forms over the
implant. This can shrink and become tight, causing the implant to
marker used to help diagnose some types of cancer. Can also be used
to check whether the cancer may have recurred. CEA is not always
a reliable test for cancer. The level goes up with other illnesses
and does not go up in everyone with bowel cancer.
small lobe of the liver situated posteriorly between the sulcus
for the vena cava and the fissure for the venous ligament.
Antigen (CEA) is a protein that normally occurs in fetal gut tissue.
After birth, detectable serum levels essentially disappear. However,
CEA may increase in the presence of various disorders such as colon
cancer. This test may also be used to determine the responsiveness
of cancer patients to treatment (to determine if cancer is spreading
or going into remission).
Nervous Sys. Lymphoma (CNS Lymphoma)
of the lymphatic system which is growing in the
brain or spinal cord.
treatment - usually used to mean with anti-cancer drugs. Normally
a course of six treatments are given about a month apart. Possible
include: hair loss, nausea & vomiting, low white blood cell
count, anemia, low
platelet count, tumor lysis syndrome, kidney damage, lung damage,
liver damage, heart damage, and damage to the veins.
series of anti-cancer drug treatments. Usually about six treatments
make up a course. A treatment is given every two, three, or four
weeks. So a course can take six months.
of cancer that arises in cartilage. Tends to occur more frequently
in adults than in children or adolescents.
who specializes in treating cancer.
studies designed to find more effective treatments and better ways
to use current treatments. Participation in treatment studies is
an option for many patients with cancer. In some studies, all patients
receive the new treatment. In others, doctors compare different
therapies by giving the new treatment to one group and the standard
therapy to another group. In this way, doctors can compare different
treatment that is not part of traditional Western medicine, but
that is used
alongside. Usually used to help reduce stress and promote a feeling
of well-being. Often help to control cancer symptoms and treatment
a researcher, this means the disappearance of all cancer for at
least 4 weeks.
connective tissues of the body are the tissues that hold organs
body structures in place. Specialized connective tissues include
bones, cartilage, muscles, and nerves. Cancers of connective tissues
are called sarcomas.
chemotherapy treatment with the drug 5-FU or 5-Fluorouracil.
given all the time that one can walk around with.
selective exposure of tissues to extreme cold, often by applying
a probe containing liquid nitrogen, to bring about the destruction
of abnormal cells.
local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy.
Tomography. A technique for examining internal structures of the
body. The exam is painless and requires no special preparation.
Tumors, blood clots, bone displacement and gathering of fluid can
be detected. Also called Computerized Axial Tomography.
anti-cancer drug (chemotherapy).
intended to remove most or all of the visible tumor, and then follow
immediately with chemotherapy.
instrument for looking at the inside of the bladder, the prostate
The tube of a cystoscope is passed into the bladder under general
anaesthetic and the surgeon uses it to look at the inside of the
bladder and urethra.
of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function
to cells" - anti-cancer treatment.
T Cells (Killer T Cells)
of the immune system that kill other cells that are foreign to
the body (for example, viruse infected cells, and cancer cells)
including cells that have been marked with antibodies. Cytotoxic
T cells are a type of white blood cells.
with anti-cancer drugs. Another name for chemotherapy.
to remove as much of a large tumor as can be removed. This is don
to make it easier to treat the cancer that is left.
of muscle under the rib cage. Moves up and down when we breathe.
Separates the thoracic cavity (containing the lungs and heart) from
the abdominal cavity (containing the organs of the digestive system).
applying the Doppler effect, in which frequency - shifted
ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets in the bloodstream,
red blood cells, are used to determine direction and speed of blood
When radiotherapy treatment is planned, the total dose needed to
kill the cancer is worked out. This depends on where in the body
is being treated. The total dose is then broken down into a number
of treatments called fractions. Usually one fraction is given per
day. All the fractions added together add up to the total dose.
Trial where neither the doctor nor the patient know which treatment
the patient is having. This is done to try to prevent bias affecting
the trial results.
or channel which carries the output of a gland.
Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)
Type of early breast cancer affecting the ducts of the breast. Means
the cancer cells are all inside the ducts of the breast and have
not broken out. This is important as it means the chance of the
cancer cells having spread anywhere else in the body is very low.
medicine means finding a disease as early as possible, maybe before
are any symptoms.
structures that reflect high-frequency sound waves and thus
can be imaged by ultrasound techniques.
process by which a blood vessel or organ is obstructed by an embolus
means treatment given inside the bronchi. Type of radiotherapy given
inside the airways of the lung. A bronchoscopy is done and a radioactive
source put down the bronchoscope. This can deliver a dose of radiation
directly to a tumor inside the bronchus. Usually done if a tumor
is blocking, or partly blocking an airway.
of the lining of the womb.
Leakage of a chemotherapy drug into the tissues around the injection
site. When this occurs, the infusion of the drug should be stopped
right away. Certain drugs, if extravsate, can cause severe damage
to the skin and underlying tissues.
Type of bone cancer that begins in immature nerve tissue in bone
marrow. Tends to occur more frequently in children and adolescents.
with high energy waves which are beamed at a cancer from outside
One of the oldest chemotherapy drugs. Has been used for decades.
It is a clear, colorless liquid that is given intravenously.
common type of benign tumor of the liver.
Special type of camera that can take pictures of radiation being
given off. Used to produce bone scans.
of the stomach or bowel.
Therapy (Molecular Therapy)
cancer by repairing gene damage, or blocking the
proteins that damaged genes make.
Arterial Infusion (HAI) is the delivery of chemotherapy agents to
the liver through a catheter placed in the hepatic artery.
common benign tumor of the liver.
of liver tissue
inflammation of the liver, involving yellowing of the skin, enlarged
liver, loss of appetite, stomach discomfort, abnormal liver function,
clay colored stools and dark urine. The condition may be caused
by bacterial or viral infection, worms or other parasites, alcohol,
drug, poisoning or transfusion of the wrong type of blood. It may
be mild and brief or severe, intense and life threatening. The liver
is usually able to grow back it's tissue, but severe hepatitis may
lead to permanent damage.
form of infectious hepatitis caused by the Hepatitis A virus, and
having slow onset of signs and symptoms. The virus may be spread
by direct contact or through fecal infected food or water. The infection
most often occurs in young adults and is usually followed by complete
form of hepatitis caused by the Hepatitis B virus and having rapid
onset of sudden symptoms and signs. The virus can be carried in
blood products used in transfusion or by the use of unsterile needles
and instruments. The infection may be severe and result in prolonged
illness, destruction of liver cells, cirrhosis or death.
C was the major cause of all cases of hepatitis resulting from transfusions
and most resulting from intravenous drug use. Because of blood screening,
the risk from transfusions is now 1 in 10,000. It can also be transmitted
through injuries in the skin. It may also be transmitted sexually.
About 10% to 60% of acute hepatitis C patients develop the chronic
form, which can also occur without a preceding acute stage.
common type of benign tumor of the liver. Sensitive to hormonal
common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Most commonly found
Africa, Southeast Asia, China.
of childhood liver cancer. More common in young children before
May be caused by an abnormal gene.
liver cancer. Two types: hepatoblastoma, and hepatocellular
Anti-cancer drug treatment using very high drug doses. Needs to
be followed by a transfusion of bone marrow or stem cells.
science concerned with the cytologic and histologic structure of
or diseased tissue.
science concerned with the minute structure of tissues and organs
relation to their function. Also called microanatomy.
cancer of the lymphatic system. It is a type of lymphoma. There
are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's disease and Non-Hodgkin's
lymphoma. Hodgkin's disease is often very successfully treated,
even if it has spread from where it started.
meaning over, above, beyond, or excessive.
meaning under, below, less than normal, or deficient.
A measure of the total opposition to current flow in an alternating
current circuit. Unit of measure used to describe impedance is ohms.
A large vein formed by the union of the two common iliac veins that
receives blood from the lower limbs and the pelvic and abdominal
viscera and empties into the right atrium of the heart. Also called
or occurring between the ribs.
of immunotherapy. Natural substance produced in tiny quantities
of the immune system. Given in much larger doses as a treatment
to boost the
immune system and help fight the cancer. There are different types
of interferon eg. interferon alpha.
of immunotherapy. Natural substance produced in tiny quantities
part of the immune system. Given in much larger doses as treatment
to boost the immune system and help fight the cancer.
growth factor which encourages the bone marrow to make more white
Variation of a normal chemical substance which can be radioactive.
Can be used to diagnose or treat cancer (for example Sr89 is an
isotope of strontium used to treat bone cancer).
There are two kidneys, right and left. They filter waste products
out of the blood and make urine. They help the body's fluid balance
by making more dilute urine when there is too much fluid in the
body, and making more concentrated urine when we are dehydrated.
The kidneys are very sensitive to blood flow and to some drugs.
tests to see how well the kidneys are working.
Small tube-shaped instrument with a light at one end. Used in laparoscopic
surgery, in which a small cut is made in the abdomen so that the
laparoscope can be inserted. The doctor can then look at the liver
and other organs to see if anything is wrong, or to perform an operation.
into the abdominal cavity through the loin or flank.
largest organ in the body. Responsible for making blood proteins
substances that help the blood to clot, storing vitamins, cleaning
bacteria and worn out red blood cells out of the blood, getting
rid of waste products, drugs, and other chemicals and processing
carbohydrates, fats and proteins from digestion. Located on the
right side of the abdomen and protected by the rib cage.
should only mean cancer that has started in the liver, (primary
liver cancer) but in practice, it is also used to mean cancer that
to the liver from somewhere else (metastatic cancer). Primary liver
is also called malignant hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma. Very
children may develop another form of liver cancer knows as hepatoblastoma.
tests to see how well the liver is working.
of the liver using soundwaves.
section of an organ. There are lobes of the brain, thyroid, liver,
operation to remove a lobe of an organ.
a cancer comes back in the same place.
small operation to remove an early cancer which has not spread away
where it started growing.
Spread (Local invasion)
of a cancer into the area of the body around where
There are two lungs (right and left) inside the ribcage. When we
breathe, air passes into the lungs. Oxygen from the air filters
through the lungs into the bloodstream. Waste carbon dioxide filters
back into the lungs and is breathed out.
Body fluid which circulates through the lymphatic system. Carries
food supplies to, and waste products away from the body tissues.
Glands (Lymph Nodes)
found throughout the body - particularly in the armpits,
neck, and groin which fight infection and filter body fluid.
out a lymph node to look at it under the microscope. This is to
see if it
contains any cancer cells. It is a very small operation. It is normally
done under a general anaesthetic, but a patient should be able to
go home the same day.
scan of the lymph glands using dye injected into the bloodstream.
System of tubes and glands in the body which filters body fluid
and fights infection. Made up of the lymph glands, lymphatic vessels
and the spleen.
(High Grade Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma)
High grade lymphomas are faster growing and more acute diseases
than low grade. They are usually treated with more intensive chemotherapy
treatment than low grade, but if treated at an early stage, may
just be treated with radiotherapy.
Resonance Imaging (MRI)
use of a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer to produce electronic
images of specific atoms and molecular structures in solids, especially
human cells, tissues, and organs.
spread of cancerous cells from their origin to another part of the
Small Cell Lung Cancer
group of types of lung cancer: squamous cell, adenocarcinoma and
lung cancers. These are grouped together because they all respond
to roughly the same treatments and behave in similar ways.
Magnetic Resonance (NMR).
Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Sometimes a secondary tumor is found, but no primary tumor can be
found, in spite of extensive tests. Doctors refer to the primary
tumor as unknown or occult.
A unit of electrical resistance equal to that of a conductor in
which a current of one ampere is produced by a potential of one
volt across its terminals.
benign but painful bone tumor.
of primary bone cancer. Tends to occur more frequently in children
of symptoms and prolongation of life.
To a researcher, this means the cancer is shrinking to at least
half the original size for at least four weeks. There must not be
any sign of growth of the cancer anywhere else in the body.
Opening of the bowel onto the surface of the abdomen. A bag is worn
to collect the waste matter from digestion that would normally be
passed from the body as a bowel motion. This operation cannot be
reversed. Often the rectum is removed and the anus is closed up
by the surgeon.
Side effect of continuous 5-FU treatment. The skin on the palms
of the hands and the soles of the feet becomes red and peels. The
redness and peeling clears up when the treatment is finished.
Type of blood cell. Helps the blood to clot. Platelet levels can
drop during the course of chemotherapy.
to remove a whole lung.
A wide short vein that is formed by the superior mesenteric and
splenic veins behind the pancreas, ascends in front of the inferior
vena cava, and divides the right and left branches that ramify within
gland found in men surrounding the urethra. The gland makes a thick
white fluid which mixes with sperm to make semen.
of the prostate gland.
Substance produced by prostate cells found in the blood. The level
can be measured by a blood test. If the level is much higher than
normal, there may be a cancer in the prostate and further tests
will need to be done. Can also be used as a marker in men diagnosed
with prostate cancer - the level goes up when cancer is growing
and falls when the cancer is shrinking.
of Prostate Specific Antigen in the blood.
speaking, radiation mans giving off any energy particles or
waves and includes heat and light. But usually used to mean radioactivity.
means gamma rays, alpha or beta particles from a radioactive source.
radioactivity comes from the breakdown of atoms. The source can
be natural or made in a nuclear reactor. Uncontrolled radiation
can be dangerous and cause cancer. Contolled exposure to radiation
can be used in medicine for diagnosis (eg. X-rays) or to treat cancer
use of X-rays, electrons, or gamma rays to treat cancer.
Radiation can cure or control cancer by inhibiting the cancer cells
or reproducing. About 50-60% of cancer patients will require radiation
time during their lifetime. Side effects will be recognized and
treated by a
radiation oncologist. There are basically two types of radiation
or brachytherapy (radiation at a short distance). A course of treatment
lasts 2-5 weeks.
to remove the breast, lymph glands under the arm, and the muscles
of the chest wall. Very rarely done now.
effects on the body of radiotherapy. Occur only in the area that
is being treated, although reddening of the skin may also appear
on the other side of the body where the rays pass through. Radiotherapy
can cause hair loss, sickness, diarrhea, sore skin, and sore mouth
depending on where in the body the patient is treated. A long course
of radiotherapy often causes tiredness. Radiotherapy side effects
are a little unusual in that they do not start immediately after
the treatment. They build up and then do not disappear until a little
while after the course of treatment has ended. This can be a number
of weeks depending on how much radiotherapy has been
that has come back again after treatment.
or in the region of the kidneys.
Word used in surgery meaning to cut away. If something is resected,
it is removed during an operation.
that has arisen in connective tissue (e.g. muscle, bone, nerves).
inside the body from the outside to see if there is anything wrong.
(e.g. ultrasound scan or CT scan)
Testing the general population to see if a particular disease can
be detected early-usually before the person has any symptoms. Can
only be done if there is a reliable and simple test for the disease.
Cancer spread. Cancer cells have broken away from the primary cancer
(where the cancer began in the body) and have spread to another
organ or part of the body, where they have begun to grow. Secondary
cancer has to be treated according to the type of cells that it
is made up of. For example, breast cancer cells that have spread
to the lung will respond to breast cancer treatments and not lung
cancer treatments because the cells are breast cancer cells no matter
where in the body they are growing.
cancer that has spread from the lungs to another part of the body.
Different type of cancer caused by previous cancer treatment. Must
not be confused with secondary cancer, which is a cancer that has
to remove a segment of a body organ, for example a segment of a
of the rectum and colon using a sigmoidoscope. The sigmoidoscope
is a thin bendy tube which is put into the colon and rectum through
the anus. The tube is connected to an eyepiece which allows the
doctor to see inside the bowel and to take biopsies (samples of
tissue) for examination under a microscope. A sigmoidoscopy can
see into the bowel as far as the sigmoid colon. This is the S-shaped
part of the large bowel on the lower left of the abdomen.
to remove the breast only.
Bowel (Duodenum, Ileum)
of the digestive system. Tube that connects the stomach
to the large bowel (colon). Digestion continues in the first part
of the small bowel (duodenum). In the rest of the small bowel (the
ileum), nutrients from digested food are absorbed into the body.
Cell Lung Cancer
Type of lung cancer. Behaves differently from the other main types
of lung cancer and so is treated differently. Can spread early,
so often treated with chemotherapy.
of lymphoma. The cells appear small under the microscope. This is
grade type of lymphoma.
that is part of the lymphatic system, on the left side of the body
just under the diaphragm. It filters the blood, removing worn out
red blood cells and
stores red blood cells. It also contains lymph node tissue and many
lymphocytes. It is sometimes removed in Hodgkin's Disease. It is
perfectly possible to live healthily without a spleen, but the patient's
risk of infection will be higher and the patient may be asked to
take antibiotics long term.
Type of flat skin cells that cover the outside and inside of the
body. Many cancers are squamous cell cancer.
A cancer that develops from squamous cells found in the skin that
covers the outsideand lines the inside of the body. For example,
a squamous cell cancer of the lung develops from the cells that
line the airways.
stage of a cancer refers to the size of the cancer and how far it
has spread. Used to decide on the best course of treatment. There
can be any number of stages, but for most cancers there are about
four. Stage one is the smallest cancer and stage four (or highest
number) means the cancer has spread to another part of the body.
for cancer similar to a bone marrow transplant, but does not require
an anesthetic to collect the cells and recovery can be quicker.
Donor transplants (allogeneic transplant) cannot be done with stem
cells yet. So if a donor transplant is needed, a bone marrow transplant
will still be done. Very high doses of chemotherapy are given to
kill cancer cells. This also kills the bone marrow which contains
all the developing blood cells. For a transplant, the very early
blood cells normally found in the bone marrow are collected from
the blood, frozen, and stored. The stem cells can then be given
back through a drip after the high dose chemotherapy is over. They
find their way back into the bones and start to make blood cells
pipe used to keep open a tube in the body that is in danger of becoming
blocked off. For example, in cancer of the lung a stent may be used
to keep open an airway that is becoming blocked by a tumor.
An opening onto the outside of the body. There are several different
types of stoma. A colostomy is an opening of the large bowel onto
the outside of the abdomen. An ileostomy is an opening of the small
bowel. A urostomy is an opening of the urinary system (made after
the bladder has been removed).
Organ of the digestive system which digests food and absorbs water.
Lymphoma can sometimes develop in the stomach.
large vein formed by the union of the two brachiocephalic veins
azygos vein that receives blood from the head, neck, upper limbs,
and chest, atrium and empties into the right atrium of the heart.
disease that affects the whole body. Leukemias and lymphomas are
systemic diseases because the blood system and the lymphatic system
all over the body. Systemic diseases are treated with treatments
the whole body such as chemotherapy, rather than local treatments
that covers the whole body. For example, chemotherapy is usually
systemic treatment because it circulates throughout the body in
the bloodstream. Systemic treatments are best for cancers that have
One of the older hormone manipulating agents. Has been in use for
over 20 years. A potent anti-estrogen, used in treatment of hormone
sensitive tumors such as breast cancer in both early stages of the
disease as an adjuvant treatment and in patients with metastatic
disease. Normal daily dose is one 10 mg tablet twice daily. Side
effects may include: hot flashes, fluid retention, vaginal discharge,
irregular menses, tendency for blood clots.
of the newer chemotherapy drugs. An extract from the bark and needles
of the yew tree. Taxol is a white powder and when prepared for use
a clear, colorless liquid which is given by intravenous route only.
used in combination with other drugs, such as 5-FU, Adriamycin,
Cytoxan, and Cisplatinum. Normally given once every 3 weeks. Possible
effects may include low white blood cell counts, low platelet count,
hair loss, soreness of mouth, difficulty swallowing, diarrhea, nerve
allergic reaction, and fluid retention. Taxol is metabolized in
the liver and
excreted into bile.
drug that caused birth defects. Now being investigated as a cancer
treatment because it is antiangiogenic (stops blood vessels growing).
abnormal condition in which the number of platelets is reduced.
It is usually caused by breakdown of erythroid tissue bone marrow
linked to certain tumor diseases or in an immune response to a drug.
with anti-androgens and pituitary downregulators at the same time.
Completely blocks the production and effects of the sex hormones.
the treatment of prostate cancer.
Body Irradiation (TBI)
radiotherapy to the whole body. Can be part of the treatment
necessary for a bone marrow or stem cell transplant.
to remove the whole prostate. The operation cannot be done via the
penis (transurethrally) so there will be a scar. The lymph glands
around the prostate
are usually removed as well. Also called a radical prostatectomy.
meaning across; on the other side; beyond.
to remove the part of an enlarged prostate which is pressing
on the urethra (tube which carries urine from the bladder out of
the penis). The prostate is chipped away in tiny pieces and removed
through the urethra so there is no scar. Can be done for benign
enlarged prostate or prostate cancer.
trials. Research studies designed to find more effective treatments
and better ways to use current treatments. Participation in treatment
studies is an option for many patients with cancer. In some studies,
all patients receive the new treatment. In others, doctors compare
different therapies by giving the new treatment to one group and
the standard therapy to another group. In this way, doctors can
compare different therapies.
word for cancerous lump. "Benign tumor" can be used to
total mass of tumor tissue carried by an individual with cancer.
Temporary increase in symptoms from a cancer after starting treatment.
Happens when prostate cancer is treated with pituitary downregulators
if anti-androgens are not given for the first few weeks.
A substance, released into the circulation by tumor tissue, whose
detection in the serum indicates the presence of a specific type
extent of the spread of a malignant tumor from its site of origin.
A disease of the bowel (colon). The lining of the bowel becomes
inflamed causing pain, bleeding and watery diarrhea. The disease
is a chronic condition. This means it is not really curable but
it tends to come and go. People who have had ulcerative colitis
for a long time (more than 10 years) have a higher chance of developing
cancer of the bowel than people without this disease.
using sound waves to build up a picture of the inside of the body.
A gel is
put on the skin and a microphone passed back and forth over the
area to be
scanned. A computer converts the reflected sound waves into a picture
on the screen.
which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
System of the body that removes waste products from the blood and
makes urine. Includes the kidneys and bladder.
of the two venae cavae, designated inferior and superior.
anti-oxidant vitamin found in oily fish, liver, kidney, dairy products
Beta carotene is found in carrots, yellow vegetables and dark green
vegetables. It is converted to Vitamin A in the body. Anti-oxidant
vitamins may help prevent cancer by stopping damage to cells within
anti-oxidant vitamin found in many fruits and vegetables. Anti-oxidants
help prevent cancer by stopping damage to cells within the body.
anti-oxidant vitamin found in vegetable oils, cereals, and eggs.
Anti-oxidants may help prevent cancer by stopping damage to cells
to remove a small V-shaped piece (wedge) of an organ. A wedge
resection may be done on a breast, lung, or liver, for example.
in the blood which fight infection and produce antibodies.
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